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Dating Royal Copenhagen - marking system figurines and collectibles

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Dating Bing & Grondahl by factory marks 1853 to 2003

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Aluminia - Royal Copenhagen  Faience

 

Dating Royal Copenhagen - marking system for figurines and collectibles

 

 1. Dating by backstamp and painter's number before 1935  2. Dating by painter's number or initials  
 3. Dating by backstamp 1935 - 2002 Royal Copenhagen Denmark  4. Dating by back stamp DENMARK with crown or 3 wavy lines
 5. Signatures  6. Juliane Marie mark 
 7. Dating overglaze figurines  8. Color variations. 
 9. Aluminia Faience 10. Marking on Royal Copenhagen dinnerware
11. Second quality 12. References
13. A note from Jamiri.dk Artist list Copenhagen porcelain and art pottery from 1890s and forward 
Click on the photos to enlarge Go here for more Royal Copenhagen figurines
Royal Copenhagem Faience Aluminia Artist Signatures Om Aluminia Stempler - På Dansk  

1. Dating by backstamp and painter's number before 1935 

Pre-1900.gif (14369 byte) RC1894-1900.gif (25776 byte) RC1924-1934Painter.gif (16365 byte)
Pre-1900 1894-1900 Pre-1923 mark with Painter's number 1924-1934 with Painter's number

2. Dating by painter's number or initials

Painters.gif (52592 byte) RClowercase.gif (61735 byte) RCuppercase.gif (41305 byte)
Painter's number 1893 -1928 (193).  Painter's initials lower case till about 1950 (ffx) with the addition of "x"  simply a form of fecit = painted by Painter's initials upper-case letters  (a few appears before 1950) until present

In the Collector's Guide by Caroline & Nick Pope you will find a list of the known painters with number-signature and their working period at Royal Copenhagen. Also the data of the designing artist will be an important indication of possible age.

 

3. Dating by back stamp 1935 - 2002 Royal Copenhagen Denmark

Jamiri.dk Bar above a letter in Royal or Copenhagen Jamiri.dk Bar below a letter in Royal, Denmark or Copenhagen Jamiri.dk A bar above two letters in Royal
R 1935 R 1950 RO 1985-1991
O 1936 O 1951 RY 1992-1999
Y 1937 Y 1952 RA 1999-2004
A 1938 A 1953    
L 1939 L 1954    
C 1940 D 1955  

 

O 1941 E 1956
P 1942 N 1957
E 1943 M 1958
N 1944 A 1959
H 1945 R 1960
A 1946 K 1961
G 1947 C 1962
E 1948 O 1963
N 1949 P 1964
 

 

E 1965
N 1966
H 1967
A 1968
G 1969-1974
E 1975-1979
N 1980-1984

4. Dating by back stamp DENMARK with crown or 3 wavy lines

  RCDenmarkbarbelow.gif (12714 byte) RCDenmarkUunder.gif (11323 byte) RCDenmarkslashover.gif (31621 byte) RCDenmarkslashunder.gif (9805 byte)
A bar above a letter in Denmark A bar below a letter in Denmark A (u) above a letter in Denmark A (u) below a letter in Denmark A (slash) above a letter in Denmark A (slash) below a letter in Denmark
D 1935 D 1942 D 1949 D 1956 D 1963 D 75/79
E 1936 E 1943 K 1950 K 1957 K 1964 K 80/84
N 1937 N 1944 E 1951 E 1958 E 1965 E 85/89
M 1938 M 1945 R 1952 R 1959 R 1966 R 90/94
A 1939 A 1946 N 1953 N 1960 N 1967 N 95/99
R 1940 R 1947 A 1954 A 1961 A 1968 A 00/04
K 1941 K 1948 M 1955 M 1962 M 69/74 M  

5. Signatures

The artist have different ways of signing their works of modeling or decoration:

Initial of artist incised under the base - on production pieces Full signature by artist - on unique or limited pieces Monogram by artist - on unique or limited pieces Signature on the figurine - on production pieces Monogram on the figurine - on production pieces
RCBodewillumsen.gif (28745 byte) RCSIgnatureWF.gif (39420 byte) wpe4.jpg (2582 byte) RCPHerold.gif (26011 byte) RCTMMono.gif (92675 byte)

6. Juliane Marie mark 

Over glaze and some white pieces produced from 1900 and onward are stamped with the Juliane Marie Mark

Juliane Marie mark and Denmark mark on a Blanc de Chine Juliane Marie Mark  overglaze hand painted Juliane Marie Crown on overglaze handpainted Inscriptions under the base of overglaze  Interesting signatures - I will be very interested in photos like below Juliane Marie mark on the side of the figurine
RCJulianeMarieCrown3.gif (10494 byte) RCJulianeMarie.gif (32135 byte) RCJulianeMarieCrown.gif (14833 byte) RC12242g.gif (70485 byte) ZernichowRC.gif (60342 byte) RCJulianeMarieCrown1.gif (27176 byte)

 

7. Dating overglaze

A (.) mark below  a letter in Denmark A mark over a letter in Denmark A (.) below a letter in Copenhagen A mark (.) over a letter in Copenhagen A mark for Royal
K 1935 K 1942 N 1949 N 1959 L 69/73
R 1936 R 1943 E 1950 E 1960 A 74/78
A 1937 A 1944 G 1951 G 1961 Y 79/83
M 1938 M 1945 A 1952 A 1962 O 84/88
N 1939 N 1946 H 1953 H 1963 R 89/93
E 1940 E 1947 N 1954 N 1964 Klosterkælderen

Fuglsangsagde 4

9550 Mariager

D 1941 D 1948 E 1955 E 1965
www.visitmariagerfjord.com P 1956 P 1966
O 1957 0 1967
C 1958 C 1968

8. Color variations on figurines. 

Pieces which are produced in different color variations have a fractional number

Color code 0 for predominantly  white pieces Color code 1 for Blue Fluted ? Color code 1025 for cats Color code 1066 for ? Color code 1238 for  "brown" dogs
RCColor00.gif (72670 byte) RCcolor1.gif (36022 byte) RCColor1025.gif (16590 byte) RC632-1066.jpg (7562 byte) RCColor1238-850.jpg (10375 byte)
Color code 1452 for gray patches on white Color code 1453 Orange - Light brown Color Code 1708 for  "brindle" on certain dogs  Grey-brown colors

Color codes 946 & 947  for foxes

Some pieces were privately painted by the painters for themselves
rc1453-453b.jpg (34765 byte) RC1708-1465.jpg (4985 byte)

1233 for bears

1252 for rabbits 

1454 for monkeys.  

RCPrivat.gif (27641 byte)
B&G Birds DJ Birds Lyngby Birds RC Birds Bear Family Eagles Horse & Cow Fish & Sea Elephants Wild Cats Monkeys
RC Dogs 1 RC Dogs 2 RC Dogs 3 B&G Dogs 1 B&G Dogs 2 DJ Dogs New RC Dogs French Bulldogs Lyngby Dogs Cats Other wild animals

 

 

9. Aluminia Faience

Aluminia Faience 1903 -1969 - you have the beehive - a capital A with the three wavy lines Aluminia became Royal Copenhagen faience from 1969 - click here to learn more

Aluminia Faience 1929-1950 on a crackled porcelain dog

Signatures on Aluminia and Royal Copenhagen faiences Artist list Copenhagen porcelain and art pottery from 1890s and forward 
RCFajance.gif (32903 byte) RCCrackle.gif (70833 byte) RCFBacaJohanneGerber780-288Bab.jpg (18626 byte)  

The Aluminia Faience factory date its history to the year 1862 founded by August Schiøttt (1834 - 1863). In 1868 Philip Schou took over the factory and moved the production to Frederiksberg. In 1882 he bought the Royal Copenhagen Porcelain Manufactory and the two companies merged to one. The production of faience lived its own quite life in the shadow of the blooming interest for industrial production of porcelain at Royal Copenhagen. But the period from 1901 - 1928 became a new period of success under the artistic input from  Chr. Joachim (1870-1943) and Harald Slott-Møller (1864-1937). They crated the important works of Danish Skonvirke in the coloristic Art faience of Aluminia. Later Nils Thorsson took the manufactory into the new and final era in the period 1928-1969 where it changed name to Royal Copenhagen Faience.

RCA11-923Sauceboata.jpg (79497 byte) RCA1952Columbine2660-16cmJusa.jpg (203459 byte) AluminiaMorgenfrueLaagfadb.jpg (124259 byte) RCA159-2897JHc.jpg (223065 byte) Aluminia226-603b.jpg (145844 byte)
Aluminia Fajance Trankebar spise- og kaffestel Aluminia Børnehjælpsfigurer - Børnehjælpsdagsfigurer Aluminia Spise- og kaffestel til salg

Johannes Hedegaard 1915-1999

Aluminia Kunst Fajance til salg
Royal Copenhagen Faience Tranquebar Dinnerware Aluminia Child Welfare figurines Aluminia Faience tableware for sale Jeanne Grut (1927) Royal Copenhagen aluminia faience for sale
RCA11-933a.jpg (198001 byte) 1949Thelittlehornblower2584ab.jpg (199550 byte) AluminiaKnudSaucea.jpg (75754 byte) RCA2928SiameseJGa.jpg (79037 byte) RCA217-3102a.jpg (130516 byte)

 

10. Marking on Royal Copenhagen dinnerware and Flora Danica

RC10-1623.jpg (63017 byte) RC10-1623a.jpg (73737 byte) RC910-1623a.jpg (80603 byte) RC10-1686-22-1888-1898a.jpg (66783 byte) RC10-8193a.jpg (60247 byte)
Over the line you have the number of decoration - here #10 for Blue Flower Under the line you have the item or model # - here 1623 on a Blue Flower Curved Dinner plate On the same model and form you can have different decorations - here Frijsenborg # 910 In the Blue Flower Curved pattern you have item numbers from 1500 - 2000 The Blue Flower pattern you find numbers from 8000-8499
RC10-8520ababc.jpg (148398 byte) RC10-3303Candlestick-11cm.jpg (70780 byte) RC1-153-38.jpg (59557 byte) RC1-283-47a.jpg (365893 byte) RC1-528Mokka1.jpg (73987 byte)
The Blue Flower Angular have numbers from 8500 and forward You will find variations and gift item which will not follow the rules - candlesticks above have number 3303 The Blue Fluted pattern # 1 was given the decoration number #1 because it was the first and oldest From 1893 the numbering system was introduced. Blue Fluted plain or ribbed # 1 items were given numbers from 1-499 and 2000 forward Blue fluted half lace items were given numbers from 500 - 999
RC1-1138a.jpg (62858 byte) RC1A-2220GreenFluted.jpg (69985 byte) RC1A-2220GreenFluteda.jpg (110001 byte) RC1-1036Kop069-070.jpg (94808 byte)
Blue fluted full lace items had numbers from 1000 an onward Also here you will find variations - like more heavy hotel ware Green fluted marked 1 A

We do buy green fluted!

And items before 1893 is marked with antique Royal Copenhagen markings In the 1980s a new number system was introduced - now a cup of same size and use has the same number in different patterns - and the pattern number is no longer indicated
RCFlora20.3590SedumangliciumHuds.jpg (44173 byte) RCFloraMyosotissilvatica.jpg (44005 byte) RCFloraPrivatSedum.jpg (43742 byte) FloraDanisco3.jpg (24514 byte) RCFlora14-8651Kirin2-10h.jpg (37751 byte)
From the late 19th century the Flora Danica were marked with the name of the Latin flower in black; the Royal Copenhagen hallmark and the pattern and form number Antique Flora Danica ca. 1860-1880 The painters of Flora Danica,  where allowed to paint a few items every year they for themselves. These are marked with the painters name /initials and a date  - the name of the flower is always handwritten or not there. Quality vary from not so good to superb. The history of special orders are long - some with special motives; other's just marked on the back like above A series of Japanese flowers were painted on  a special form
RC20-3505ViolaMirabilisLa.jpg (86904 byte) RC-3501FloraDanica111a.jpg (179083 byte) RCFlora6SMallPieces.jpg (274231 byte) RC-397FloraDanicaBasketc.jpg (95035 byte)

 

To get an overview of some of the most seen Royal Copenhagen dinnerware patterns - please click here

11. Second quality

 

"Errare humanum est"
Pieces which do not meet the factory's demands for perfection are marked as "seconds". This was done by scratching through the 3 wavy blue lines with a diamond cutter. These pieces were sold with a 25-30% discount at the factory shop. Pontil marks - Some larger pieces required additional support during firing, resulting in small circular marks beneath the supported area. Not really a reason to call it a 2nd. Larger pieces with firing cracks were also sold as 2nd or 3rd quality instead of being destroyed  It is said that in the 1920-30's the factory used to let factory workers buy 3rds & 4ths for very little money ...and that resulted in "a lot" of 3rds & 4ths being made, many of them having nothing wrong with them.
Ipsen Hjort Ingdam Michael Andersen Kähler Saxbo Palshus Søholm Wiinblad Knabstrup Lindhart Other
G,Bøgelund M.Bøggild Salto Helge Christoffersen Tut Fog Gauguin Jeanne Grut Carl Halier J. Hedegaard H.H.H Valdemar Pedersen B&G
Kongstrand Knud Kyhn Lykke Madsen Agnethe Jørgensen K. Otto Karl Larsen Gudrun Lauesen Gudrun Meedom Bo Kristiansen J. Mogensen Arne Bang RC

 

11. References

Robert Heritage: Royal Copenhagen Porcelain - Animals & Figurines. Schiffer Books 1997
Caroline & Nick Pope: Collector's Guide to Royal Copenhagen Porcelain. Schiffer books 2001: 
Mikkelsen, Leif Berring. Aluminia Fajance 1862-1969. Sesam 200 (Danish)
S.E.Vingedal: Porslinsmärken, Forum 1982 (Swedish)

12. A note from Jamiri.dk

This is a dynamic site - constantly under development  - please mail your questions, corrections and suggestion - they will be taken seriously. I also welcome any photos of signatures or examples.

Do you like what you see at these pages? In the future we would like to be able to create a site that will be an inspiration to collectors all over the world. We would like to make more theme pages based on artists or motives. Also we intend to generate and translate more information about Danish Porcelain Artists, markings, dating and the different china patterns. Please consider supporting this project by sponsoring a few minutes work by contributing a small donating.

Jan Ringsmose, 2013

 
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